Laparoscopic surgery, also commonly known as closed surgery, is a surgical method that enables the patient to recover faster and feel much less pain than open surgery.
The incision size on the skin is quite small in the laparoscopic surgery method, which is used for the diagnosis or treatment of various diseases developing in the abdomen.
Laparoscopic surgery takes its name from the laparoscope used during the surgical procedure. A laparoscope is defined as a fiber optic telescope with a light at the end.
Thanks to the laparoscope, which is inserted into the body through an incision in the abdomen, the physician obtains a clear view during the procedure.
Thanks to the incisions made in different parts of the abdomen, other surgical instruments are inserted into the procedure area and the surgeon monitors his movements on a high-resolution monitor.
Many different diseases can be diagnosed and treated with laparoscopic surgery, also known as minimally invasive surgery or bloodless surgery
Laparoscopic surgery is a method that can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The most common operations with the laparoscopic method are gallbladder surgery, cyst surgery, appendectomy (removal of the appendix), myomectomy (removal of fibroids), hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), tubal ligation (tying of the fallopian tubes) and endometriosis (chocolate cyst) surgery.
Laparoscopic surgery, which allows health problems related to internal organs to be treated with surgical intervention, is often used by physicians of gynecology, gastroenterology, urology and general surgery. Some of the many diseases in which laparoscopic surgery is used for diagnosis and treatment can be listed as follows:
Investigation of abdominal or groin pain,
Diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID),
Diagnosis of menstrual bleeding accompanied by excessive pain and bleeding,
Diagnosis of ovarian cysts,
Removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes or uterus for various reasons,
Investigating the causes of infertility,
Treatment of ectopic pregnancy
Diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis-related diseases,
Treatment of cysts in the abdomen,
Removal of tumors in the abdomen,
Removal of the gallbladder,
Treatment of diseases that require cutting the intestines,
Diagnosis and treatment of scrotal orchiopexy (undescended testis),
Treatment of stomach ulcers
Treatment of hernias in the abdomen and inguinal region,
Partial or complete removal of organs such as prostate, liver, colon, kidneys and bladder.
As in other types of surgery, the patient is put to sleep with general anesthesia before the procedure to be performed with laparoscopic surgery. The operation begins with an incision made in the lower abdomen.
Carbon dioxide gas is administered through the incision made so that the physician can easily see the area to be processed on the monitor. The odorless and colorless carbon dioxide gas injected into the abdomen with a Veress needle causes the patient’s abdomen to swell.
Thus, the inner region of the abdomen expands and the area to be processed can be seen clearly. After the procedure, after the abdominal area of the patient is inflated with carbon dioxide gas, some of which is absorbed by the body, the veress needle is removed and a trocar tube is inserted.
The laparoscope is passed through the trocar tube to enable observation of the relevant region on the monitor. Depending on the area to be operated, 2 or 3 more incisions with a diameter of 0.5 to 1 cm are made and trocar tubes are placed in these areas. Special hand tools to be used during laparoscopic surgery are inserted through these tubes into the abdomen.
After the completion of the surgical procedure, all the instruments and the trocar tubes are withdrawn. The carbon dioxide gas is discharged and the procedure is completed by suturing the incision areas. The same procedures are repeated when laparoscopy is performed for diagnostic purposes. In some cases, inserting the optical imager is sufficient for diagnosis, while in other cases, laparoscopic hand tools can be used.
One of the main advantages of laparoscopic surgery is the small size of the incision. This allows the patient to recover quickly after the operation and the amount of intra-abdominal adhesions is less compared to open surgery.
Laparoscopic surgery is less painful for the patient after the procedure and therefore less pain medication is needed during the healing process. After the laparoscopic surgery, the person is discharged in a short time and returns to his daily life faster.
The incision size is so small that it will not cause any aesthetic problems. Any existing incision scars become almost invisible in a few years. The risk of hernia development after a procedure is minimal. Another important advantage of laparoscopic surgery is that complications such as bleeding and infection are less common than after open surgery.
After laparoscopic surgery, the patient is taken out of the operating room and put under surveillance. After the patient regains full consciousness, he/she is brought to his/her room.
The effect of the anesthesia continues for a while. During this period, the patient may complain of nausea due to the anesthesia and mild pain in the incision area.
Although the time to get up varies depending on the type of intervention performed with laparoscopic surgery, the patient can usually get up within 3-4 hours and have a light meal.
The person may feel shoulder pain for 24 hours as a result of the carbon dioxide gas administered to the patient during the procedure. Depending on the type of procedure, the patient is usually discharged on the same day or the next day and sent home.